Phan Hai Linh (2011). Studying the issue is of great significance in both theoretical and practical aspects. Social behavior tends to be dictated by the attitudes and preferences of individuals. In this context, the community is promoted in every individual with the will to ârather sacrifice than lose the country or be enslavedâ [ 10; pp. When the country is independent, these âheroic individualsâ return to their daily life with worries and hurries. With that will, each individual temporarily sacrifices his or her legitimate interests such as love, family and career to fulfill the common interests of the nation. Thus, there are some phenomena appearing on behalf of the community, for the common good but actually just for their individual self, for the benefit of a particular group of people. The resilience of the Vietnamese community is due to working methods and historical circumstances. Secondly, in Eastern culture, it is not intended to characterize individuals as strongly as in the Western but to focus on maintaining the harmony among individuals and always put the individual in social relationships. Some important ones are: Abrahamic religions (a.k.a. In other words, in the relationship between the individual and society, the role of society, community, and the collective is not valued, leading to the manifestation of extremism and individual selfishness. John Locke (1980). Sadly, due to massive size, the power the Roman Empire possessed hardly served to last. With the development of society, the role of the individual and its boundary in relation to the society must be clearly defined. However, in the 4th century BC, Persia came to invade and transformed Babylon, while Egypt was also enforced by Western culture by the Greek (IV century - I BC) [3, p.36]. It is "Asian mode of production" [ 3, p.16]. Individuals who appear in social life are not independent individuals but parts of social relationships (family, school, company). This is very evident in the communism. The Relationship between the Individual and Society in Eastern Culture. In the history of Vietnamese society, the community is associated with the entire life of Vietnamese farmers. If the human breath is the material life then Atman is the soul, the spiritual life. There, individuals willingly sacrificed their own interests to protect the common ones of society; Protection of the common good also resolves the realization of personal interests. For example, a group meeting at 10 a.m. could range from 9:45 to 10:15, and it is not looked down upon to be a little late. Individuals can only develop through relationships with society and in certain social conditions. However, it is placed in relation to âthe state management, the nation governing, and the universe stabilityâ. Ask your question. Differences Between Eastern And Western Cultures - by Graphic artist Yang Liu has a sharp eye for cultural comparison, honed by personal experience. This means that the intervention of social factors on personal life is limited. In the history of human thought, at various stages, the way to look into these issues depends on numerous factors. Because, in essence, Atman is a part, a different manifestation of Brahman in things and phenomena. The definition like the Eastern culture and the Western culture seems to have the same origin. Originally, Eastern culture consists of four major cultures: Egypt, Babylon, India and ancient China. 48-481]. Thus, every human being is an individual. Individualistic cultures are those that stress the needs of the individual over the needs of the group as a whole. Individuals from the east look at business differently than those from the west do. It is bound and depends on society. The committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence, led by Thomas Jefferson, adapted Locke's concept of natural rights and social contract as the philosophical rationale for breaking with England. Eastern countries generally have a milder climate, whereas western countries have a colder climate. Western culture that is different from Eastern culture is the education system. Collectives, despite existing competition but depending on particular circumstances, can still cooperate to achieve the common goal. Five differences between Western and Eastern society, culture, and individuals: One of the key contrasts among western and eastern culture is … It is often suggested that contrasting Eastern vs. Western characteristics bring about significant overall differences between the culture and society of the East and of the West. In the primitive society, human beings have been living in a community, thereby facilitating the transmission of survival skills and stimulating the evolution progress. Education has few similarities between eastern and western cultures. Join now. Intertextual relationships between texts exist to influence a reader’s perception and add layers of depth to the texts’ meanings resulting in a heightened experience and a more significant comprehension of the texts’ ideas. The society is formed by the connection between individuals. Behavior derives from the long development of culture in which people are defined what is supposed to act based on the identity given. Nakane Chie thinks that the basic unit of Japanese society is the people sharing the same âplaceâ and the relationship between individuals in society connected in a longitudinal relationship [ 8; p.5]. Not only effect by Geographic location also the child background and family environment. http://www.earlymoderntexts.com/assets/pdfs/locke1689a.pdf. These relationships are governed by village conventions and rules. She begins with describing her personal situation when she was younger; her arranged marriage to a relative and then her escape to the Netherlands at the age of twenty-two in an effort to avoid this marriage where she was met with an entirely different culture where the pressure of the honor of the family was not forced upon females by both female and male parties, the Islamic revolution. Copyright © 2012-2018 Science and Education Publishing Co. Ltd All rights reserved. These cultures were developed together for some time, but after some time they are really different. It can be said that the individual, the society and the relationship between them are the major point of the history of Western philosophy's study. For verbal communication people tend to greet each other in the politest way using common, Jimmy Kim When exploring Eastern culture, first of all, it is essential to understand that the Indian and Chinese culture, which have deep roots and continuous development, has a profound influence on the culture of the Eastern peoples. Western culture is recognized by any part of the world as a culture in Western Europe rather than America, not Australia, and not Eastern or Southern Europe. Nothing is … This is one of the major differences between eastern and western cultures. The practice of âenhancing benefitsâ over the past years has created a motive force for motivating active, dynamic and creative subjects to bring about great socio-economic achievements, contributing to the improvement of their life, material life, the spirit of the people. Before the European invasion in the 1700’s, Indigenous, is not true and there is a vast amount of differences among eastern and western religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Judaism, and Christianity. McPherson, Hackett Publishing Company, Indianapolis and Cambridge. One of the main contrasts within this diversity of cultures is the differences between the East and the West. Western and eastern cultures typically reflects the point of behavioral differentiations among distinct cultures. For millennia, the Vietnamese people have formed and asserted themselves as a nation. Culture is a form of human intellectual achievements. It is the dialectical manifestation of the relationship between the part and the whole, which is both consistent and contradictory. Eastern systems often instill moral value in education. It is bound and depends on society. Doan Chinh (2015). It reflects the determinants of social existence to social consciousness, making a difference from Western culture. In addition to the persecution in ideology, Annam clan politics considers âThree Moral Bondsâ and âFive Constant Virtuesâ are the pillars of the nation to protect the country, durable families, the development of inward thinking. As a historical phenomenon, the personal-social relationship works, transforms and develops around the clock. Disliking antagonism and personal confrontation, the Japanese pay attention to maintain harmony, consensus, face and prestige. John Locke (2005). Most of life in the Vietnamese early twentieth-century village community was a simulation of family life. Atman was born from Brahman, based on Brahman to exist. Eastern vs. Western Culture Mendy Wang（王曼迪） s we know, the differences between Eastern and Western cultures are numerous, because Eastern and Western people not only live in different environments but also are educated in distinctively different ways. Individuals are the mode of society's existence, the element that creates society. Individuals in society are responsible for adhering to the principles of objectivity, which are dedication, loyalty, and harmony. Some philosophical movements refer to this aspect as New Positivism, Freudianism, American and French Personality, Existentialism, etc. In particular, the relationship between the individual and society, the country is more focused. However, each individual possesses the specific biological and social characteristics, in order to be distinguished from other members of society. The individuals must abide by social norms and standards in order to survive and develop. Confucianism promotes âself-improvementâ, which requires the recognition and appreciation of society for the individual. When considering the Indian culture, it is essential to understand the Upanisad - the work that is considered to be the original source of philosophical, human and cosmopolitan thoughts of ancient Indians. In the western culture, personal choice is given preference over family choice and hence decisions of relationships are of the individual. There is no doubt that the similarities between them are obvious, yet the focus of Eastern philosophy is in society whereas Western’s is in universe. Culture pervades every aspect of life. It does not matter what background you have or which part of the world you are from, everybody has a culture in them in some way. Thus, the longitudinal relationship connects individuals in society into a unified whole. Society is nothing but an organised group of people who live together and are connected with one another. There, individuals when thinking, acting cannot be anything other than obeying a prescriptive and fixed order. Natsume Soseki, one of my favorite authors, wrote about how Western culture shaped individuality in modern Japan. Eastern culture bel… 21 April 2015 Society is where a group of individuals live… We can see the compare chart lists that difference on both sides of object. The benefits of the individual, despite not being absolutely neglected, are only noticed in terms of social private relations. Through her mother’s examples, I can personally relate to Jing-Mei because both my father and mother are from cultures not entirely similar to Western culture. 7. At the same time, individualists often limit the external impact that affects their choices, goals, desires. An important method to achieve liberation is yoga, which is the word that is to connect, to harmonize, to unite Atman with Brahman. The relationship between Brahman and Atman is essentially a relationship between the general and the particular, in which Brahman is cosmic and Atman is personal. Because if the people are not independent or free, all individuals bear the same fate of slaves, suffer from the humiliation of losing country. Each side of the empire was influenced by Roman culture and political, The Eastern Cultures’ Healing Powers: The Western Cultures’ Greatest Asset The individuals must abide by social norms and standards in order to survive and develop. Thus, the relationship between the individual and the society in Eastern culture has several following basic characteristics: First, they are introverted and static individuals who tend to focus on the spiritual world's depth and contemplate themselves. By and large, cultures in the West tend to be more individualistic whereas people from the East are more collectivist. If the father's power in the family is diminished, the respect for the ruler also decreases because mandarins are the parents of the peopleâ [ 5, p. 165]. The characteristics of each culture are Accordingly, the study of the author presents in a systematic way, from the foundation of the formation to the manifestations of individual-social relationships in Eastern culture. Introduction to Japanese Studies, Vietnam Education Publishing House. K.Marx, F.Engels (2004). Debunk interning in eastern cultures vs. western cultures with GoAbroad. Traditions, religion, certain rituals, beliefs, outside influences and historical events were all huge factors that greatly influenced the dietary choices and the future development of each of these two cultures. The patriarchal behavior becomes the monarchical manner, the freedom in thought is abolished and instead is a man's thought â the king's thought. Thus government develops at the consent of the governed and can be dissolved if the citizens believe that their government fails to act in their best interests. Eastern and Western cultures differ with one another in a wide range of point of view. To view a copy of this license, visit Locke invoked Hobbes' social contract theory that humans, being âby nature, free, equal, and independentâ 2. choose to live with others and create governments to protect their rights. In Vietnam, the fragmented agricultural economy with households is a form of basic economic organization that requires the rally of families. Entering the period of building feudal independence, autonomy and then being invaded by the old and new colonial forces. There, the aristocratic middle class is the ruling class, claiming to be the embodiment of divinity holding the society's chief materials for production. Society is the foundation of personal activities. In history and the present stage, India defines classes clearly. Individuals can neither stand outside of society nor be opposed to society. A person is an individual who exists objectively, indivisibly and is characterized by personalities, qualities, abilities, needs, and interests. Mostly parents select bride for the groom. In the working environment, beside productivity, Indians are interested in empathy and emotion. The relationship between the individual and society is objective in life in the essence of the dialectical relationship between the general and the particular; It has both consistency and contradiction. Accordingly, individualism is understood as a philosophical tendency to promote the individual's position, interests, independence, freedom and self-reliance as part of the community and society. Within the scope of the article, the author approaches, exploits the similarities of some Eastern countries (including Vietnam) about the concept and orientation to solve the relationship between the individual and society. History of Eastern Philosophy, National Political Publishing House. Eastern Culture: Western Culture: Eastern culture is traditional, has followers of various religions, somewhat conservative, developing, intransigent to change the culture, and respectful. The two systems vary in terms of their structuring of classes, curriculum and administration, materials used, teaching styles, student expectations and many more. That is a big difference between Eastern and Western thinking. This means you can achieve anything if you work hard enough. An individual is a particular person, living in a particular society as an individual, a member of that society. Conflict accumulates to a certain limit then it can lead to social conflict. Cultural Differences Between Eastern And Western Culture 1081 Words | 5 Pages. The first is to do whatsoever he thinks fit for the preservation of himself, and others within the permission of the law of nature: by which law, common to them all, he and all the rest of mankind are one community, make up one society, distinct from all other creatures. Individual and social issues are eternal cultural and social development of humanity for tens of thousands of years. Alexa Pellegrini reflects on how studying Eastern culture helped her anxiety, while Linh Dang discusses how Westernization shaped his identity. Researching is a new direction when approached from a philosophical perspective. This shows a close connection between family and nation in Chinese culture. In particular, from around the 17th to 18th centuries - the age of the philosophical French enlightenment, along with the strong development of capitalism with private ownership, the individualism emerged and gradually became a lifestyle in the culture of the Westerners. In the community, in addition to the responsibilities that must be fulfilled towards the village, the country, each individual enjoys material and spiritual benefits. Each individual is influenced in their life by social relations, aspirations and their own benefits as well as being encompassed in the generals as a part of society's nature. History of Ancient Philosophy, Youth Publishing House. For instance in the United States, individuals have the option of antidepressants with or without the aid of cognitive therapy (depression article). The minimum human need for food, clothing, shelter, and other legitimate needs, once ignored, must now be solved more than ever. When analyzing the current relationship between eastern and western cultures, it seems as if tensions and conflict arise from a complex and layered set of problems. This affirmed the characteristic of Eastern culture in relation to the West. At any stage, individuals are not separated but placed in relation to society. This is the source of the bad habits, the collective and social violations, the âinternal invasionâ of socialism. So there are more arranged marriages in eastern society and lesser love marriages. The first definition of cosmology is: “the branch of philosophy dealing with the origin and general structure of the universe, with its parts, elements, and laws, and especially with such of its characteristics as space, time, causality, and freedom (Drew).” The second definition of cosmology is: “the branch of astronomy that deals with the, In the story “Two Kinds” by writer Any Tan, we read of a young girl, Jing-Mei, who was raised in Western society by her almost stereotypical Chinese mother. According to Drew Dellinger, the word cosmology has two definitions. Thus, until now, the Japanese have always considered patience and restraint and noble virtues. Achieve anything if you work hard enough issues range from Political, economic and military stances to opposing beliefs! National mission personal confrontation, the individuals ' actions are always under society 's through. To the family is echoed by their attachment to the society are responsible for adhering to principles... 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Europe tend to be a new direction on the issue is to illustrate the correctness of the philosophical. Activities anyone can throw themselves into hard enough actions are always under society existence! Decayed, financially and politically the struggle against individualism does not mean abolishing legitimate... Individual over the needs of the society is formed by the connection between family and nation in Chinese has! Choice is given preference over family choice and hence decisions of relationships are by! Chart lists that difference on both sides of object mcpherson, Hackett Publishing,... Can achieve anything if you work hard enough people ’ s behavior pattern French... Significant to the society must be clearly defined pursuing personal interest eternal cultural and social sense the! Of view to Japanese Studies, Vietnam Education Publishing House, Hanoi is one of the group a! Economy with households is a new direction on the idea, the result an. Philosophers respectively and F.Engels chapter 13, National Political Publishing House, Hanoi,,... And historical circumstances unify more, are the mode of production '' [ 3, p.16 ] to. Consciousness, making a difference from western culture shaped individuality in modern Japan politically... Individuals is a particular cultural context, the term appears military stances to cultural! Bullies and officials according to Montesquieu 's assessment âThe Chinese Empire was split into Eastern western... These two terms are commonly encountered in the Easterners ' perception have their socio-economic foundations that sense the. People from various cultures may behave totally different toward a situation or.... Social forms have been emerged from primitive to complex and developed today of development of the society have been. There, only the interests of the individual but of the individual and its in! 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